The BRP Project Stage-Activity Framework
In deriving the BPR Project S-A framework, researchers surveyed methodologies practiced by leading reengineering consulting firms, such as Gemini Consulting, Ernst & Young, ISS, DMR Group, Andersen Consulting, Nolan & Norton Inc., CSC / Index, McKinsey Co., D. Appleton Co., and Price Waterhouse. These consulting houses make use of proprietary BPR methods embodying their own philosophical assumptions. It was found that consultants tailor their methods to fit clients’ unique needs.
It was also determined that many of the tools and technology vendors provide BPR services based on proprietary methodologies.
Following a step-by-step inductive procedure a 6 stage, 21-activity, composite S-A Framework for BPR, as shown below, was derived. Each stage in this framework was subdivided into major activities.
A typical BPR Project consists of the following six stages:
Stage-Activity Framework for Business Process Reengineering
- Envision (S1)
- Initiate (S2)
- Diagnose (S3)
- Redesign (S4)
- Reconstruct (S5)
- Evaluate (S6)
Envision ( S1): This stage typically involves a BPR project champion engendering the support of top management. A task force, including senior executives and individuals knowledgeable about a firm’s processes, is authorized to target a business process for improvement based on a review of business strategy and IT opportunities in the hopes of improving the firm’s overall performance.
Initiate (S2): This stage is classified as the documentation of the existing process and its sub-processes in terms of process attributes such as activities, resources, communication, roles, IT and cost. In identifying process requirements and assigning customers value, root causes for problems surface and non-value-adding activities are identified.
Diagnose (S3): This stage encompasses the assignment of a project team, setting of performance goals, project planning, and stakeholder/employee notification and “buy-in.” This is frequently achieved by developing a business case for reengineering via benchmarking; identifying external customer needs and cost benefit analysis.
Redesign (S4): In the redesign stage a new process design is developed. This is accomplished by devising process design alternatives through brainstorming and creativity techniques. The new design should meet strategic objectives and fit with the human resource and IT architectures. Documentation and prototyping of the new process is typically conducted and a design of new information systems to support the new process is completed.
Reconstruct (S5): This stage relies heavily on change management techniques to ensure smooth migration to new process responsibilities and human resource roles. During this stage, the IT platform and systems are implemented and the users go through training and transition.
Evaluate (S6): The last stage of a BPR methodology requires monitoring of the new process to determine if it met its goals and often involves linkage to a firm’s total quality programs.
Source: MIS Quarterly, Internet